Bibliography: Military Industrial Complex (page 2 of 3)

Schwartz, Charles (1975). The Corporate Connection, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Research reveals that many academic members of governmental science advisory committees are also members of boards of directors of large corporations. The apparent conflict of interest places science at the disposal of the military and industrial complex. Scientists involved in policy making should be independent, unbiased advisors.   [More]  Descriptors: Advisory Committees, Committees, Consultants, Federal Government

Schofield, Damian (2014). Virtual Education: Guidelines for Using Games Technology, Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice. Advanced three-dimensional virtual environment technology, similar to that used by the film and computer games industry, can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic online virtual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of interactive Virtual Reality (VR) learning environments across a spectrum of industries and educational application areas. This idea is not new; flight simulators have been used for decades to train pilots for both commercial and military aviation. These systems have advanced to a point that they are integral to both the design and the operation of modern aircraft (Adams, Klowden, & Hannaford, 2001; Mastaglio & Callahan, 1995). There are a number of lessons that can be learned from the industries that have successfully utilised virtual training and learning systems. Generic rules of thumb regarding the specification, development, application, and operation of these learning environments can be garnered from these industrial training systems and examined in an educational context (Grunwald & Corsbie-Massay, 2006; Schofield, Lester, & Wilson, 2004; Tromp & Schofield, 2004). This paper introduces a virtual learning environment ViRILE (Virtual Reality Interactive Learning Environment) developed by the author. ViRILE is designed for use by undergraduate chemical engineers to simulate the configuration and operation of a polymerisation plant. During the implementation of this, and other, visual learning environments a number of complex operational problems were encountered; these have required a number of innovative solutions and management procedures to be developed. This paper will also discuss the implementation of this and other similar systems and extrapolate the lessons learnt into general pedagogical guidelines to be considered for the development of VR based online educational learning resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Games, Technology Uses in Education, Educational Games, Simulated Environment

Schofield, Damian (2014). A Virtual Education: Guidelines for Using Games Technology, Journal of Information Technology Education: Research. Advanced three-dimensional virtual environment technology, similar to that used by the film and computer games industry, can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic online vir-tual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of interactive Virtual Real-ity (VR) learning environments across a spectrum of industries and educational application areas. This idea is not new; flight simulators have been used for decades to train pilots for both com-mercial and military aviation. These systems have advanced to a point that they are integral to both the design and the operation of modern aircraft (Adams, Klowden, & Hannaford, 2001; Mastaglio & Callahan, 1995). There are a number of lessons that can be learned from the indus-tries that have successfully utilised virtual training and learning systems. Generic rules of thumb regarding the specification, development, application, and operation of these learning environ-ments can be garnered from these industrial training systems and examined in an educational con-text (Grunwald & Corsbie-Massay, 2006; Schofield, Lester, & Wilson, 2004; Tromp & Schofield, 2004). This paper introduces a virtual learning environment ViRILE (Virtual Reality Interactive Learn-ing Environment) developed by the author. ViRILE is designed for use by undergraduate chemi-cal engineers to simulate the configuration and operation of a polymerisation plant. During the implementation of this, and other, visual learning environments a number of complex operational problems were encountered; these have required a number of innovative solutions and management procedures to be developed. This paper will also discuss the implementation of this and other similar systems and extrapolate the lessons learnt into general pedagogical guidelines to be considered for the development of VR based online educational learning resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Guidelines, Games, Engineering Technology, Virtual Classrooms

Schiller, Herbert I. (1971). Mass Communications and American Empire. Mass communications are a chief tool in maintaining and expanding American influence abroad. Various government officials recognize this and have made statements which make it explicit national policy. The domestic communications complex is a vital part of the military-industrial complex and is used to further its interests, both in defense of this country and in aggression and counter-insurgency abroad. Furthermore, our media are used for cultural imperialism, in which our products, value, and way of life dominate the airwaves of some other countries (like Canada) to such an extent that these countries have scarcely any indigenous culture. The American postwar imperialist thrust is especially evident in new space communications systems like Comsat and Intelsat. If a democratic restructuring of the communications empire is to take place, it must be a national effort, led by those in the communications industry itself. Descriptors: American Culture, Broadcast Industry, Communications Satellites, Developed Nations

Brock, W. E. (1969). Congress Looks at the Campus. This is a report of a campus tour led by US Representative Bill Brock of Tennessee to gain a better understanding of student unrest. The 22 participating Congressment were divided into 6 regional groups which together visited over 50 universities of all types and sizes. Their report discusses a series of issues named by students as major sources of concern or dissatisfaction. These issues include: communication channels, institutional unresponsiveness, hypocrisy, educational irrelevance, administrative over-reaction, black experience and non-white expectations, racism, the military-industrial complex, poverty and hunger, imperialism and the Third World, police state tactics, economic oppression, remoteness from power, misplaced priorities, Vietnam and the draft, materialistic values, and the media. The opinions of students on these issues are accompanied by comments by the author(s) of this report. Various recommendations for non-repressive federal action are offered.   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Federal Programs, Higher Education, Student Attitudes

Haapanen, Larry (1990). Eisenhower's Farewell Call: Arguing for an Alert and Knowledgeable Citizenry. In his January 17, 1961 farewell address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned Americans to be wary of the "military-industrial complex." He called for "an alert and knowledgeable citizenry" which would assure the proper meshing of the military and industrial defense machinery with peaceful methods and goals. Eisenhower's comments reflected his concern both with the dangers of internal ignorance and with those posed by external enemies. While his military experience showed him the need for secrecy, Eisenhower disliked censorship that was intended simply to avoid embarrassment. Although Eisenhower believed that national security, administrative efficiency, and technical complexity justified censorship and his administration established the classifications of "confidential,""secret," and "top secret" which are still in use, the retired general's reputation for openness may have helped delay the push that eventually led to the Freedom of information Act. In his farewell message, Eisenhower failed to explain how an informed citizenry could be fostered and maintained, but his other writings indicate mistrust of both the press and politicians as sources of information. The President's warning regarding the military-industrial threat came so late that it militated against the "alert and knowledgeable citizenry" that he deemed so important. (Twenty-three references are attached.) Descriptors: Censorship, Mass Media Role, National Defense, Political Issues

Vandergriff, Donald E. (2006). From Swift to Swiss: Tactical Decision Games and Their Place in Military Education and Performance Improvement, Performance Improvement. In today's arena of military transformation, the newest bandwagon everyone is jumping on is "reform military education." This comes about in light of the complex problems faced by Army leaders in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Army's education and training doctrine was developed to deal with second-generation or industrial war. The existing system did all right to prepare Army leaders, especially its junior officers, to adapt to the unexpected demands of the ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Nevertheless, the Army leader development system has to do better. As a result, think tanks and military task forces are proposing all kinds of changes to military education, at the levels of joint education, midlevel officer career courses, and senior-level war colleges. This article focuses on Tactical Decision Game (TDG), a tool which provides an efficient and effective way to teach intuitive decision making–or, as the Army calls it, rapid decision making–in aspiring leaders. It discusses how to use the TDG as a decision-making teaching tool and provides a set of general guidelines when using TDGs. It also discusses its implications for performance improvement and its applications in the nonmilitary world. Ultimately, TDGs, in the context of a learning organization of an adaptive leader's course, provide an educational approach for building a cadet's strength of character. The Army is beginning to realize that the foundation of an effective future officer corps must begin early and, to create leaders that are adaptable, know "how to think" and have intuition.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Military Training, Educational Games, Decision Making

Gold, Howard, Ed. (1985). Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide. This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and information sources (arranged according to four areas, namely, disarmament-development, military issues and economics, economic conversion, and miscellaneous); (5) audio-visual materials; (6) proposed legislation; (7) sources of information on military spending and arms policy, presented in three sections, namely, the Bibliographic Survey from the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London), United States government, and military-industrial complex; (8) economic conversion conferences; and (9) two bibliographies. The first is an annotated bibliography of recent publications in five categories; the second is a two part bibliography of items related to economic consequences of armament and economic consequences of disarmament. The majority of the resources provided include descriptions and, when applicable, the names and addresses of contact persons. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Conferences, Development, Disarmament

Albrecht, Andreas; And Others (1985). Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers. This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make their own decisions about how their skills are used in science and engineering. The first part provides introductory comments. The second part provides a brief history of the arms race, listing arms control treaties. The third part examines military programs in industry and the university. A geographic chart showing the military-industrial complex in the United States is included (with regional statistics for top defense contractors, dollar awards, weapon systems produced, numbers of defense-related jobs, and members of Congressional armed services committees). Also included is a list of universities receiving top Department of Defense contracts. The fourth part examines future developments, going from MX to "star wars." Lists of suggested readings and organizations which help find non-military science/engineering employment are included in appendices. Descriptors: Career Choice, College Science, Engineering, Engineering Education

Joseph, Earl C. (1984). Ask a Futurist. Peace [and] Robots. A futurist addresses two questions concerning world peace and the implications of using robots. In the section on peace (part 1), recommendations for world peace include: (1) implementing peace education as a mandatory part of education; (2) establishing a Department of Peace in each country to create a societal infrastructure for implementing peace; (3) institutionalizing a peace-industrial complex stronger than a military-industrial complex in which peace would become a profitable enterprise, (4) establishing a standard peace index for measuring the "quality of peace," (5) studying the meaning of peace in all contexts, (6) building machinery/technology for peace, and (7) conducting research and development for peace. Part 1 concludes that society needs preventive systems which are future-oriented to achieve peace rather than reactive tactical systems. Part 2 focuses on the future of robots, defines artificial intelligence, and makes a distinction between expert systems and robots. The section concludes that while robots and automated machines directly displace people from jobs, expert systems (consulting tools or appliances used for amplifying human skills) will actually create new jobs and raise society's standard of living by making humans increasingly more "intelligent" and capable. Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Change Strategies, Employment Opportunities, Futures (of Society)

Scott, John A. (1969). New Dimensions for History Teaching in the Schools. The Wingspread Conference on the Social Studies, sponsored by the National Association of Independent Schools in June 1968, has offered important leadership in bringing history and social science education into the 20th century. A significant departure from other innovative efforts within the profession was the heavy involvement of classroom teachers. Some highly useful ideas for bringing about needed changes in social studies education also emerged. Briefly stated, some of these are: 1) we must help youth to seek the truth about modern life… face it more freely, and change it more fully, rather than continue to indoctrinate through rote memorization of facts; 2) classroom work will have meaning only if it is related to community commitment outside the classroom; 3) the informed public opinion that could act as a check on the irresponsible exercise of power by the United States Government does not yet exist. The classroom must critically confront the realities of nuclear power, the military industrial complex, etc; and, 4) Black studies are not needed merely or especially for blacks, but for whites. Wingspread also called for the establishment of a clearinghouse and newsletter for disseminating information about innovation in secondary social studies. Some major revisions in teacher training are needed in order to accomplish these objectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Black Studies, Citizenship, College School Cooperation, Educational Development

Etzkowitz, Henry (). The Politics of Science and Technology: Nuclear and Solar Alternatives. Historical data reveal that U.S. government policy and military and corporate interests have been instrumental in the development of nuclear energy and the underdevelopment of solar energy. It was not until 1972 that solar energy was funded by the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and in 1974 solar energy received $12.2 million as compared to $475.4 million for nuclear fission. Although a low-cost source of pollution-free energy, the photovoltaic solar cell, has been close to the point of availability for over twenty years, recommendations by scientists have not been followed by a sufficient commitment of funds to achieve any significant results. The lack of funding is a result of ERDA's commitment to the development of atomic energy. However, this commitment is a result of President Eisenhower's 1953 speech to the United Nations to lessen public anxiety about the dangers of atomic weapons. The speech created the Atoms for Peace Program in which the commitment of funds for nuclear power research was made not on the judgment of the potential of nuclear reactors as a source of inexpensive power, but rather as a legitimization for the continued development of atomic weapons. Therefore, the key difference between solar and nuclear research is that the commitment of government resources to the development of the atomic bomb led to the creation of a large-scale nuclear industry as part of the military-industrial complex. And, because large corporations in the oil-energy industry are committed by previous investments to oil, coal, and nuclear energy technologies, the potential source for the development of solar energy lies in the confluence of the environmental and anti-nuclear social movements. Descriptors: Energy, Futures (of Society), Nuclear Warfare, Political Attitudes

Sampson, Edward E. (1968). A Modern Sisyphus Goes to College. Both Clark Kerr and Zbigniew Brzezinski argue that American society is becoming technologically complex or "technetronic" and that the new multiversity is the appropriate type of higher education institution to serve that society. The historically relevant man must adjust himself to these circumstances; the historically irrelevant one can continue his "Sisyphian" life. A different argument using historical inevitability begins with the needs of the individual. Here, the new era and its institutions will have to be modified to serve the individual. Thus, the humanistic protest movements, including the Third World's revolution for social justice and the Fourth World's revolution for quality, are historically relevant and represent sensitivity to the future. This dialectic argues for a movement away from Society, a period of renewed emphasis on the Community, and, finally, a new synthesis: "community-in-society." Two of the major issues reflecting this dialectic are the concept of individual participation in decision making and the revolt against the excessive rationalization of all life. Both trends are now at work in the university which has been the bastion of superrationalization. The present influential Establishment against change could well be called "the military-industrial-educational complex." A university that would lead us into the new community-in-society would have to make rather radical changes in its own complexion.   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Higher Education, Institutional Role, Participation

Fink, C. Dennis; And Others (1974). A State-of-the-Art Review of Techniques and Procedures for the Measurement of Complex Human Performance. Consulting Report. Recent efforts to assess complex human performances in various work settings are reviewed. The review is based upon recent psychological, educational, and industrial literature, and technical reports sponsored by the military services. A few selected military and industrial locations were also visited in order to learn about current research and development efforts related to personnel performance evaluation. Although this survey was concerned primarily with techniques for assessing the performance of trained practitioners, as opposed to aptitude testing, certain aptitude measurement procedures which could be applied to the post-training assessment of behavior were also included. Measurement techniques which are typically employed to assess trainees but could also be used to assess practitioners are also described. Techniques for assessing perceptual processes, communication or interpersonal skills, and psychomotor skills are included. The evaluation methods are classified under the headings: achievement and aptitude tests (multiple choice tests), self-provided information (interviews and self-appraisals), appraisal by others (rating and ranking techniques), behavioral measurement (situational proficiency tests), and record audit (medical or flight records audit). For each method, its reliability, validity, current state, feasibility, and sources of additional information are discussed. Its appropriateness for evaluation of physicians is also considered. Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Aptitude Tests, Behavioral Objectives, Bibliographies

Taylor, Marshall R. (1970). Social Studies: Selected Cultures. Grade 6. This revised teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of selected cultures through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are six units: 1) Cultures and Archaeology –cultural factors, cultural study, artifacts, fossils, archaeological sites and evidence; 2) Food Gathering Complex –life styles, cultural development, tribal organization and society of the Malayan Semang, Aborigines, Bushman, Pygmys, and Eskimo; 3) Agrarian-Handicraft Complex –characteristics, land and resources, family life, education, religion, arts, and sciences in Southeast Asia, Africa, South America, and Egypt-Mesopotamia; 4) Greek Culture and 5) Roman Culture –life styles, religion, philosophy, education, fine arts, politics, government, military, technology and cultural tradition; and, 6) Industrial Complex –environmental influences on industrialization, types of industries, institutions promoting and controlling industry, cultural and social change with regard to industrial development, urbanization, and world trade. Each of the content sections outlines the major concepts, behavioral objectives, class activities, resources, and evaluation techniques. In addition, there is a list of basic instructional materials including books and filmstrips.   [More]  Descriptors: Anthropology, Archaeology, Concept Teaching, Cultural Education

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