Bibliography: Military Industrial Complex (page 1 of 3)

Maranto, Robert; Van Raemdonck, Dirk C. (2011). The American Educational Industrial Complex: A Critique of a Concept Submitted to the "Journal of School Choice", Journal of School Choice. Many people view subgovernments such as the "military-industrial complex" as largely self-governing and budget maximizing. Yet, as defense cutbacks in the 1970s and 1990s show, such networks do not maintain their privileged status indefinitely. In similar fashion, some claim public education is too autonomous and too focused on budget maximization. Others see U.S. public education bureaucracies as open systems representing their political environments, if not individual parents. This article seeks clarity by offering a preliminary definition of educational industrial complex and an exploration of its nature and size. The authors summarize the existing literature and present resource measures tracking educational industrial complex growth over time. While per-pupil expenditures have steadily increased, since World War II the increases have largely reflected gross domestic product growth. Further, while the public education student-to-staff ratio initially rose in a Parkinsonian manner, since the Reagan era that growth has moderated. Last, the educational industrial complex has lost its monopoly over policy expertise, and, to a considerable degree, reformers now dominate education policymaking circles. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Education, Politics of Education, Administrative Organization, Power Structure

Terzian, Sevan G.; Rury, John L. (2014). "A Highly Selected Strain of Guinea Pigs": The Westinghouse Science Talent Search and Educational Meritocracy, 1942-1958, Teachers College Record. Overview: This article examines the Westinghouse Science Talent Search over the first sixteen years of its operation. A national contest involving thousands of high school seniors annually, it reflected a growing national concern with developing scientific manpower in the midst of global conflict, the Cold War, and a growing military-industrial complex. Background/Context: While there have been recent studies on the historical development of science education, particularly in the mid-twentieth century and immediate postwar era, little attention has been devoted to such extracurricular activities as science fairs and academic contests. This study addresses this gap by examining a prominent national talent search competition, while assessing its place in the development of a meritocratic ethos in science. Focus of Study: The study describes the genesis of the Science Talent Search, its approach to identifying winners, and the inequitable impact of this approach. Although the competition's organizers emphasized its meritocratic quality, our analysis demonstrates that the selection process that it employed systematically discriminated against certain groups of students. Research Design: The study was conducted by historical research in primary and secondary sources, particularly those associated with the Science Talent Search in the first two decades of its existence. Statistical data also were compiled from Science Talent Search records and combined with data from the U.S. Office of Education and the Census Bureau to conduct an analysis of factors contributing to success in the contest. Conclusions/Recommendations: Most Science Talent Search winners over the period in question were white males from large urban schools with greater financial resources. Women and African American students were underrepresented, as were students from rural areas and schools with relatively few resources. Ultimately, this national competition reflected social and cultural forces that shaped the science professions in a crucial period of their growth, and may have represented a lost opportunity to make scientific training more truly meritocratic at a formative time in its development.   [More]  Descriptors: Talent Identification, Competition, High School Seniors, Extracurricular Activities

Hartnett, Stephen John (2011). Google and the "Twisted Cyber Spy" Affair: US-Chinese Communication in an Age of Globalization, Quarterly Journal of Speech. The "twisted cyber spy" affair began in 2010, when Google was attacked by Chinese cyber-warriors charged with stealing Google's intellectual property, planting viruses in its computers, and hacking the accounts of Chinese human rights activists. In the ensuing international embroglio, the US mainstream press, corporate leaders, and White House deployed what I call the rhetoric of belligerent humanitarianism to try to shame the Chinese while making a case for global free markets, unfettered speech, and emerging democracy. That rhetorical strategy carries heavy baggage, however, as it tends to insult the international community, exalt neo-liberal capitalism, sound paternalistic, and feel missionary. Belligerent humanitarianism sounds prudent, however, when compared to the rhetorical strategy of the US military-industrial complex, which marshals the rhetoric of warhawk hysteria to escalate threats into crises and political questions into armed inevitabilities. To counter these two rhetorical strategies, this essay argues that China's leaders deploy the rhetoric of traumatized nationalism, wherein they merge a biting sense of imperial victimage, Maoist tropes of heroism, and a new-found sense of market mastery to portray the US as a tottering land of hypocrisy and China as the rising hope for a new world order. The "Twisted Cyber Spy" affair therefore offers a case study of US-Chinese communication in an age of globalization.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Rhetoric, Intellectual Property, Global Approach

Chadderton, Charlotte (2014). The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality, Race, Ethnicity and Education. This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy, and Althusser's (1971) concept of Ideological and Repressive State Apparatus, I argue that this initiative both stems from, and contributes to, a system of social privilege and oppression in education. Despite appearing to be aimed at all young people, the planned TtT initiative is actually aimed at poor and racially subordinated youth. This is likely to further entrench polarisation in a system which already provides two tier educational provision: TtT will be a programme for the inner-city disadvantaged, whilst wealthier, whiter schools will mostly continue to get highly qualified teachers. Moreover, TtT contributes to a wider devaluing of current ITE; ITE itself is rendered virtually irrelevant, as it seems TtT teachers will not be subject specialists, rather will be expected to provide military-style discipline, the skills for which they will be expected to bring with them. More sinister, I argue that TtT is part of the wider militarisation of education. This military-industrial-education complex seeks to contain and police young people who are marginalised along lines of race and class, and contributes to a wider move to increase ideological support for foreign wars–both aims ultimately in the service of neoliberal objectives which will feed social inequalities.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Alternative Teacher Certification, Military Personnel, Preservice Teacher Education

Fraser, Cary (2009). The Politics of Knowledge and the Revitalization of American Democracy: A Response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex", Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar of the fruitful marriage of education and democratic governance in the global system. Giroux explores the contemporary threats to the integration of education and democracy within the United States by focusing upon three diverse but connected forms of assault on higher education and freedom in the United States. Giroux's critique is a powerful indictment of the anti-intellectual traditions that have existed within the United States from its early history as a British colony. Giroux's book explores the ways in which the events of September 11, 2001, when Islamic militants used civilian aircraft to destroy New York's World Trade Center (WTC) and part of the Pentagon, sparked another episode of the flight from reason that has periodically shaken the American political system. While there is a certain validity to Giroux's argument that the events of September 11, 2001 have provoked a major shift in American political culture, he also identifies the mobilization of American conservatives in the 1960s and 1970s, notably a memo prepared by Lewis Powell in the development of the intellectual siege of the academy that gained momentum after September 2001. Giroux's concerns and analysis form part of a continuous debate about American education and its contribution to the development of American democracy–a relationship that had been addressed by Thomas Jefferson who had argued for the creation of an "aristocracy of virtue and talent" to sustain republican government in the fledgling American republic. Here, the author stresses that Giroux's timely book should remind Americans that, after the departure of the Bush administration, the time for a democratic renewal in America has arrived.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Governance, Politics, Social Change

Novik, V. K.; Perednia, D. G. (2008). The Image of Today's Russian Armed Forces in the Eyes of Young People, Russian Education and Society. In the recent past there has been animated discussion of problems related to the image of the various social institutions and state organizations of Russia, including the Russian armed forces. Sociological analysis is a constructive way to shed light on the image of the military. The armed forces are linked closely to the main spheres of the life of a society. The functioning and development of the military are dependent, first and foremost, on the level of material production and the current state of the military industrial complex that has to supply it with equipment and weapons as well as with personnel strength. Its condition is affected by social, national/ethnic, and religious structures. These factors have an influence on the personnel strength of the armed forces and on the character of relations among military service personnel, as well as on the moral political unity of the military and society. The character of the interactions between social and political factors will determine the effectiveness of the use of both the military potential of society and the combat potential of the armed forces. The current state of the military is also affected by the spiritual life of society, the culture and science of society. The political stability of the state is placed in considerable jeopardy by any use of the armed forces that is not in keeping with its functional purpose. In this article, the authors argue that when implementing the sociological approach, whose chief principle is systematicity, it needs to be kept in mind that the "image of the armed forces," taken separately, is nothing more than a fragment, a component of the overall image of Russia as a world power.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Military Service, Armed Forces, Russian

Maguire, Joseph (2004). Challenging the Sports-Industrial Complex: Human Sciences, Advocacy and Service, European Physical Education Review. This article is an attempt to provide an alternative view of sports science and future sport worlds. For reasons to do with fundamental science, involved advocacy and committed service, and in a period of intensified globalization, it is necessary to reconfigure the nature and scope of teaching and research within the subdiscipline of sports sciences. However, just as the military-industrial complex dominates aspects of broader global processes, and of the academy in particular, advocates of the sports-industrial complex may well seek to thwart such alternative possibilities. As a result, the role of academics will be confined to the production of world and Olympic medals–sports scientists will be the technicians, and student-athletes the cogs, in the machine. In contrast to the performance efficiency ethos, a human development model is advocated.   [More]  Descriptors: Athletics, Global Approach, Individual Development, Advocacy

Hunkins, Ralph H. (1970). The Influence of the Military-Industrial Complex Upon Education for International Understanding, Soc Educ. The influence of the American military-industrial complex upon international education is such that we shall increase our material prosperity at the price of nuclear extinction. Descriptors: Industry, International Education, International Relations, Military Organizations

Whittle, Chris (2006). Dramatic Growth Is Possible: Untangling Education's Gordian Knot, Education Next. In this article, the author discusses how, despite of the advances in today's technology, the way children are educated now is remarkably similar to how they were educated decades ago. More than any other modern-day institution, schooling is nearly impervious to change. He notes that America's "old school design" is not working with high degree of consistency and reliability, and cites three reasons why America seems so unresponsive to these dismal realities: (1) The country has lost its outrage about the deplorable educational statistics; (2) The $400 billion per year status quo that makes military-industrial complex look nimble by comparison; and (3) America does not believe in there is a "next" generation of schools. He further notes that schools have failed to make students the masters of their own learning. As such, he suggests an "independent learning" model that should be practiced at middle schools and high schools. This model would allow students to spent half as much time in class. With this arrangement, half as many teachers would be needed. The federal government could then double the salaries of teachers without increasing taxes by a single percent.   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Schools, Independent Study, Federal Government, High Schools

Branagan, Martin (2005). Environmental Education, Activism and the Arts, Convergence. The global military-industrial complex is the world's worst polluter, so non-violence is a vital part of a sustainable world. Non-violent activism and education often occur simultaneously, with direct action frequently a dramatic attempt to educate audiences. Therefore, this paper discusses how the arts benefit both educative and non-violent activist processes. In this paper, the arts refer to the whole gamut of artistic activity, from street-theatre to film-making, and combinations thereof. The paper begins by briefly defining environmental education and the "consent" theory of power. It then uses Australian case studies to explore attributes of the arts, which assist environmental education and activism. The case studies show that the arts have many qualities that enhance information transfer and instrumental learning, and expose the covert processes of governments and corporations. The arts can educate holistically and create a liminal atmosphere conducive to emancipatory learning. The celebratory aspects of the arts bring a balance to environmentalism by lightening its often-confronting messages and actions with humour and creativity. The arts can also assist communicative learning, promoting networking and creative group processes. They can reach large audiences, and provide a wide variety of avenues for self-expression and possibilities for inclusion in environmental activism and education.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Environmental Education, Activism, Peace

Fetros, John G. (1971). Literature Search Observations, RQ. The inconsistency in the manner in which the various indexes index material on the subject military-industrial complex" is the research problem discussed. Descriptors: Bibliographies, Indexes, Information Retrieval, Library Technical Processes

Imangulova, Tatiyana; Makogonov, Aleksandr; Kulakhmetova, Gulbaram; Sardarov, Osman (2016). Characteristics of the Different Modes of Walking and Hiking Conditions to Optimize the Movement of Tourists in the Desert, International Journal of Environmental and Science Education. The development of desert areas in the industrial and tourist and educational purposes related to the implementation of physical activity in extreme conditions. A complex set of hot climate causes the body deep adaptive adjustment, impact on health, human physical performance. Optimization of physical activity in hot climates is of particular importance for the tourists and military personnel, the specific activity of which is related to the foot movement with different masses carried goods on different terrain. The methodology is based on the analysis of the results of experimental studies of the optimum speed of movement of a person walking in a desert area, taking into account temperature and weight of cargo carried. The purpose of the study–assessment of the severity of muscle work, depending on the weight of transported cargo, the nature of the soil and the air temperature at the time of walking alone in a desert area. The paper presents experimental data to evaluate the severity of muscle work, depending on the weight of transported cargo, the nature of the soil and the air temperature at the time of walking alone in a desert area.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Tourism, Physical Activities, Recreational Activities

Sullivan, Dale L. (1990). Political-Ethical Implications of Defining Technical Communication as a Practice, Journal of Advanced Composition. Calls for changes in the teaching of technical communication. Proposes including in instruction political discourse which analyzes the values of the military-industrial complex that technical writing now serves. Suggests that an apprenticeship model would be better suited to such instruction than the model now offered by the market. Descriptors: Apprenticeships, Higher Education, Moral Development, Skill Development

Clark, Christine (2004). Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Multicultural Education as a Tool for Reclaiming Schools Organized as Breeding Grounds for Prisons, Multicultural Education. With the still relatively recent advent widespread technological innovation in the global marketplace, leading to the "information age," massive automation, and corporate capital flight to Third World labor markets, future leaders are still needed, but increasingly, future workers are not. As result, students previously educated to be future workers are now educated, or rather miseducated or even diseducated, to be future prisoners. In 1977, Foucault posited the society as one predicated on a system of control originating from the disciplinary structures, beginning with indentured servitude, evolving into slavery and the military industrial complex, and culminating today in the prison industrial complex. These disciplinary structures impart social order throughout the population–into each family and individual–by means of the institutions of schools, social service providers, and places of worship, among others. Though disciplinary structures that employ negative sanctions are generally the least effective form of social control, the kinds of disciplinary structures the society has used and continues to use are, in fact, based on the idea of social control through the imposition of ever-increasing negative sanctions (Foucault, 1977). In this article, the author presents statistics which clearly illustrate the impact of this approach to social control on the establishment and proliferation of schools as breeding grounds for prisons. Furthermore, the author states that toward the development of multicultural education as a tool for reclaiming schools organized as breeding grounds for prisons, multicultural educators must: (1) Provide a point of entry for the schools as breeding grounds for prisons theme within the field of education by locating it in relationship to parallel ones in economics and criminal justice, among others, from both an historical and present-day context; (2) Offer an overview of the roles that the field of education as a whole, and teacher education in particular, must play in seeking to prevent schools from becoming breeding grounds for prisons and to reinvent those already functioning in that manner; (3) Examine the current curricular and pedagogical practices in teacher education that encourage the proliferation of schools as breeding grounds for prisons; (4) Investigate the educational practices of in-service teachers that make schools into breeding grounds for prisons; (5) Articulate, in great detail, what good education looks like it–the kind that dismantles schools as breeding grounds for prisons and reconceptualizes them as imparters of critically conscious learning, laboratories for the practice of democratic citizenship, and producers of leaders and practitioners predisposed to progressive action in all academic and professional arenas; (6) strategize as to how to establish and maintain schools that can and do provide the kind of good education that precludes the breeding of students for prison, given the economic and political machinery invested in the status quo; and (7) Discuss the specific responsibilities of leaders and practitioners in teacher education, teacher education policy, teacher education professional organizations, teacher education schools and colleges, in-service teachers, students, and parents, among others, in revealing and dismantling schools functioning as breeding grounds for prisons, as well as in creating the new context in which good education can be realized.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Multicultural Education, Sanctions, Social Control, Educational Practices

Feldman, Jonathan (1989). Universities in the Business of Repression: The Academic-Military-Industrial Complex and Central America. This book presents the thesis that U.S. universities have become part of an academic-military-industrial complex that support repression and murder in Central America. Part 1 explains how U.S. policies have been based on murder in Central America and examines the responsibility of transnational corporations and U.S. war planners in this enterprise. Part 2 documents the role of transnationals in Central America, focusing on the role of agro-chemical companies in creating economic dependency and how university links to corporate investments in the region could be used to challenge U.S. policy in Central America. A theory of "selective divestment" is advanced that describes how divestment actions used to mobilize opposition to U.S. support for apartheid in South Africa could be applied to Central America. Part 3 examines how universities are part of a larger "warfare state," focusing on universities' increasing dependency on military funding and the political and economic forces that drive the militarization of research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. Six appendixes provide information on transnationals linked to intervention in Central America, military advisors and their academic affiliations, university defense spending, the Department of Defense-University Forum, applied R&D at U.S. universities, and organizing methodology and resources. Descriptors: Activism, Civil Liberties, Corporations, Financial Support

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