Bibliography: Globalization (page 199 of 215)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Barbara Merrill, Barbara Kempnich, Swee Noi Smith, Brisbane. Australian National Training Authority, Jean-Luc Guyot, Janet G. Spence, Nick Jagger, Etienne Bourgeois, Inc. Public Policy Associates, and Elaine Butler.

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). (1999). The Changing Role of Government and Other Stakeholders in Vocational Education and Training. Historically, the roles of the public and private sectors in VET have been characterized by the following broad stages: (1) unstructured and unregulated VET; (2) supply-driven, state dominated VET; and (3) market-driven VET. More recently, the combined forces of globalization, technological change, and liberalization of markets have forced governments to seek the collaboration of private-sector stakeholders in administering and delivering VET. The question is how to reform state-driven VET systems to deliver such training in response to the new requirements created by multifaceted, rapidly changing labor markets. The scope and effectiveness of the state's role in VET is central to, and inextricably linked with, the role of other institutions within the nongovernmental or private sector. Core tasks in the field of VET that are specific to government are as follows: laying the foundations for an overall national VET policy and system; mobilizing investment in VET and searching for incentives; and protecting the public from exploitative practices and ensuring equal access to VET opportunities. Contributions of the private sector may include the following: providing relevant, up-to-date information on labor market requirements; participating in the institutional framework for policy design and training delivery; co-financing VET; designing the content of VET; and evaluating and providing feedback on the VET system's overall performance. (Contains 14 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Cooperative Planning, Economic Factors, Educational Administration

Niyozov, Sarfaroz (2001). Globalization's Effects on Teachers' Life and Work: Case Studies from Rural, Mountainous Tajikistan. This paper draws on qualitative research in mountainous, rural areas of Tajikistan to reveal the complex and contradictory effects of the Soviet collapse on the life and work of teachers. While within the former USSR, Tajikistan experienced comparative modernization, but the Soviet collapse and 6 years of civil war left the republic with a ruined economy and very poor social indicators. The transition to a market-driven economy was chaotic and resulted in unimaginable wealth for a few and tremendous hardship for the majority. The education system is also in a state of misery. The post-Soviet system continues the dogmatic approaches and hierarchical administration of its Soviet predecessor and is underfunded, inequitable, ineffective, and riddled with continuing tensions.  Socio-historical research focused on the life histories and experiences of five secondary school teachers ("core participants") at three sites in the Badakhshan province, as well as focus groups with a total of 36 teachers. All the core teachers had taught in both Soviet and post-Soviet times, were reform-minded, and represented ethnic and gender diversity. Themes of the teachers' experiences included sorting out ideological and political confusion, coping with the lack of basic services and needs (including food and heat) after the breakdown of Soviet infrastructure, increased professional challenges and decreased support, effects of the market economy on student attitudes, the spread of drugs and violence, teacher demoralization and powerlessness, moments of hope amidst despair, opposition to a narrow technical-rationalist view of teaching, and reactions to decentralization and other external educational "reforms." (Contains 63 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Disadvantaged Schools, Educational Change, Educational Environment, Educational Needs

Kempnich, Barbara; Butler, Elaine; Billett, Stephen (1999). Irreconcilable Differences? Women in Small Business and VET. Recent research on Australia's vocational education and training (VET) system and women in small business was synthesized to identify ways of making VET more responsive to the needs of women in small business. Special attention was paid to the following topics: key issues affecting public policy (globalization, economic development, industry restructuring, the changing nature of work, the growth of small business); small business and VET in the Australian context; and gender and equity issues for women in small businesses and VET. Among the review's main conclusions were the following: (1) conflict exists between current Australian policies on VET and policies on employment; (2) for women, learning "on the job" is still resulting in nonrecognized and nonaccredited learning despite the current climate of high affirmation of credentials; and (3) as Australia's VET system moves to a fully marketed model, issues related to gender and equity are becoming more pronounced, and the lack of congruence between the needs and everyday realities of women in small business is widening. (The report contains 117 references. Appended are findings from a 1997 study on enhancing VET for women training for transitions and notes on the 1997 Women in Small Business management seminars and workshops.) Descriptors: Adult Education, Curriculum, Education Work Relationship, Educational Environment

Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane. (1999). Providing Life-long Skill Training through an Integrated Education and Training System: The Australian Experience. Recognition of the need for lifelong learning that is accessible to all Australians underpins the Australian vocational education and training (VET) system. The Australian Qualifications Framework is a nationally consistent framework that allows for credit transfer and articulation between Australia's schools, VET, and universities. The Australian system of VET has been moving toward lifelong, competency-based training designed to equip Australians for the world of work, enhance their labor market mobility, achieve equitable outcomes in VET, increase investment in training, and maximize the value of public VET expenditure. Achievement of these objectives is being supported by the Australian Recognition Framework and Training Packages. Emerging challenges for the Australian system of lifelong skill training include the following: globalization, rapidly advancing information and information and communication technologies, market reform and the need for greater quality and flexibility, and restructuring of the labor market. To assist in achieving the central objectives outlined in Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003, Australia is taking the following actions to improve and enhance community and industry attitudes toward training: (1) developing seamless pathways that link the sectors of postsecondary education; (2) raising and improving awareness of VET; (3) raising the National Qualifications Profile; (4) expanding flexible delivery; and (5) making a strong commitment to research, development, and innovation.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Articulation (Education), Delivery Systems, Education Work Relationship

Bourgeois, Etienne; Duke, Chris; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Merrill, Barbara (1999). The Adult University. This book examines two themes and the interplay between them: (1) the future of the university in an era of mass higher education; and (2) social inclusion or exclusion. It is informed by studies its authors made of British and Belgian higher education and by research from their colleagues elsewhere in Europe. Following an introductory chapter that explains the basis for the book, chapter 2 examines ideas about the modern university mainly in Europe and England but recognizes increasing globalization. It notes the changing pressures of rapid transmission of information and mobility of people, as well as the characteristics and behaviors of university staff and students. Chapter 3 analyzes the way a university actually behaves to make itself available to adults, especially nontraditional students. Chapter 4 examines the characteristics of adults who are admitted to universities. Chapter 5 looks at the experience of attending a university from the perspective of adult students and, then, lecturers. Chapter 6 builds on these preceding analyses for a more theoretical consideration of the conditions and strategies for innovation to recruit/accommodate adults for university study. The final chapter reflects upon and makes predictions about the adult university of the future. The book contains 170 references. Descriptors: Admission Criteria, Admission (School), Adult Education, Adult Students

Braun, M. J. (2001). The Political Economy of Computers and Composition: "Democracy Hope" in the Era of Globalization, JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory. Proposes that positions which claim that classrooms and institutions are historically situated in economic and political structures lack a critique of capital. Examines the technologizing of composition through the critical lens of political economy. Concludes that in order to speak ethically, compositionists who theorize the role of technology in writing instruction must not forget political economy. Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Economic Factors, Higher Education, Institutional Environment

Rowley, Thomas D.; Freshwater, David (1999). Ready or Not? The Rural South and Its Workforce. This report synthesizes findings and recommendations presented at the Southern Rural Labor Force Conference held in New Orleans in October 1998. Recognizing that the South's recent economic prosperity resides primarily in metropolitan areas, this report focuses on the readiness of the rural South to work in the future and on ways to improve the work prospects of rural areas. Part 1 looks at major trends shaping tomorrow's workplace and the implications for the rural South and its workforce. These trends include advances in technology, a growing service sector, organizational restructuring, globalization, demographic changes, and governmental policies. Part 2 examines three key "legacies" of the rural South that hinder workforce development: poverty, racial division and discrimination, and under-education. In addition to lower educational attainment, the rural South's educational deficiencies include less qualified and lower-paid teachers, lower adult literacy, and lower academic performance. Part 3 measures the performance of rural southern workers in the labor market in terms of earnings, employment level, underemployment, career advancement, and extent of workplace skills. Part 4 sums up the problem of a changing demand for labor versus an unchanging labor force in the rural South. Recommendations focus on raising the job skills of current workers, improving access to information on job opportunities, facilitating multiple job holding, and maintaining existing jobs in the region. (Contains references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Change, Education Work Relationship, Educational Attainment, Educational Needs

Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. (1999). Preparing Students as Global Citizens. This report was prepared by The "Preparing Students as Global Citizens" Task Force of Howard Community College's Commission on the Future. The principal issue addressed by this task force was to identify ways in which Howard Community College (Maryland) can prepare its students to be effective citizens in a global society. Its focus is based upon a previous report stressing the need for community colleges to integrate their educational mission with issues regarding globalization. In order to execute its assignment, the task force studied an array of resource materials, formulated a vision, delineated a series of recommendations in five areas for the college to consider and pursue, and initiated an inventory of existing international resources. The vision consists of five priorities: making a commitment to education on global skills and competencies; providing adequate resources; recognizing diversity; promoting dialogue; and creating an environment where global competencies can be learned and practiced. A series of specific recommendations are then outlined in the following areas: (1) a list of competencies and skills required of all global citizens; (2) the roles of the administration, faculty, and boards; (3) community participation; (4) technology and global initiatives; and (5) financial resources necessary to support global initiatives. A draft worksheet that lists an overview of college and community resources is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, College Role, Community Colleges, Cultural Awareness

Farrell, Lesley (1999). "Working" Knowledge and "Working" Identities: Learning and Teaching the New Word Order of the New Work Order. This paper is concerned with the role that enterprise-based teachers play in attempting to induct workers on the periphery of the global economy into the discourses of the global marketplace. It focuses on the micro-politics of language, arguing that economic globalization is a social achievement that generates and requires new language and literacy practices. Workplace language and literacy practice changes to accommodate the demands of global networks of accountability (for instance, various quality documentation mechanisms) and associated management structures like cross functional teams and these changes have a significant impact on work practice, work identities and constructions of working knowledge. Enterprise-based language and literacy teachers can be implicated in the social and political processes by which new working identities and new working knowledges are constructed. The paper draws on an intensive 8-month study of a restructuring textile manufacturing company as the company attempts simultaneously to achieve a QS 9000 rating, to establish a cascading set of cross functional teams, and to implement an Action Learning Team training program.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Case Studies, Foreign Countries, Global Approach

Huws, Ursula; Jagger, Nick; O'Regan, Siobhan (1999). Teleworking and Globalisation. Towards a Methodology for Mapping and Measuring the Emerging Global Division of Labour in the Information Economy. Inexpensive telecommunications, the spread of computing, and globalization are creating major change in the location of work within and between countries. Because no tools have yet been developed to investigate the new spatial employment patterns, a cluster analysis involving more than 50 variables and 206 countries was performed to group countries and identify their position in the emerging global division of labor in information-processing work. The analysis identified qualitative and quantitative changes occurring in the organization of distribution of work. Special attention was paid to the following: call centers (centers in remote locations at which functionally specialized workers with a telecommunications link to customers are concentrated); off-shore data processing; and development of the export software industry in countries such as India, the Philippines, Russia, and Bulgaria. Data about the numbers and characteristics of home-based teleworkers in the United Kingdom that were drawn from the UK Labour Force Survey were also used in the analysis. The following factors associated with high and low rates of teleworking were discussed: cost and availability of information and telecommunications technology; differing sectoral and occupational structures; urbanization; household size and structure; and national regulatory context. (Nineteen tables are included. The report contains 104 references.) Descriptors: Adult Education, Cluster Analysis, Data Analysis, Data Collection

Singh, Jagtar (1999). South Asia in the Global Electronic Village: Issues and Implications. This paper discusses issues related to developments in computer and communication technologies in south Asia. The first section considers the Internet and its impact. Paradigm shifts and globalization are addressed in the second section, including the shifts away from stand alone libraries to library and information networks, ownership to access, just-in-case to just-in-time, print-based publications to digital documents, stand alone libraries to networked systems, intermediary model to end-user model, command-based systems to menu-based systems, linear to non-linear mode of access, hierarchical to non-hierarchical systems, one-way dissemination of information to interactive communication, bundling of scholarly journal to unbundling, stability to instability, physical format to formless data, and top-down to bottom-up systems. The third section examines the existing gaps and inequality between and within developed and developing countries. South Asia and its problems are described in the fourth section, including geographical, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as steps in the direction of regional cooperation and socioeconomic development such as SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) and SAPTA (SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement). The conclusion points out the need to coordinate and consolidate the resources and services of different types of libraries in South Asia and describes some resource sharing programs in the region. Contains 32 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Foreign Countries

Spence, Janet G. (1999). Worker-Centered Learning: Labor's Role. ERIC Digest No. 211. Globalization of the economy and rapid technological innovation challenge today's work force to prepare for continuous change. In response to a strong mandate from their membership, labor unions have formed partnerships to deliver the necessary worker education. Because they are in daily contact with workers and have a holistic knowledge of individual workers' needs, labor unions are in an excellent position to provide worker education. To meet the work force's education needs effectively, however, unions must form new partnerships with management, community organizations, and statutory bodies. One of the most dramatic changes in labor union-sponsored work force education is its broad scope. Many employee development programs now seek to promote workplace learning beyond firms' narrowly defined business interests. This broad-based learning addresses the challenge of turning novices into experts. Literacy issues underlie many educational initiatives. Labor-sponsored, worker-centered learning programs are democratic in structure and involve discussion facilitators who use a wide variety of exercises and activities to encourage participatory learning. Many labor unions are taking a hard line on educational equity issues and focusing on low-paid, low-status, or female employees. Increasing educational access for these union members means eliminating physical barriers to educational participation. (Contains 19 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Adult Education, Adult Learning, Cooperative Learning

Public Policy Associates, Inc., Lansing, MI. (1999). Redefining Public Education: The Promise of Employer-Linked Charter Schools. This paper describes the context that has encouraged the emergence of more than 100 employer-linked charter schools throughout the United States and examines the efforts of the employers and educators who are involved in employer-linked charter schools. The paper begins by explaining how the following business changes have promoted development of employer-linked charter schools: technology; globalization; escalating customer expectations; view of people as a strategic element; and extended enterprise. Discussed next are the promise of employer-linked charter schools and the natural affinity between employers and charters. Examples are then presented that illustrate the following key elements of employer-linked charter schools at work: founders' vision; learning in context and in the world; meeting workforce development needs; charters' relationship to traditional school systems; unique features of employer-linked charter schools; curriculum innovation; raising standards; assessment of student achievement; flexibility in staffing; and role models and mentoring. The paper's conclusion emphasizes the following findings regarding employer-linked charter schools: they provide compelling evidence of what charters can accomplish; they can increase the level of ownership by the business community; their relationship with public education can take many forms; they serve diverse as well as disadvantaged student populations; and they are an experiment in progress.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Charter Schools, Conventional Instruction, Curriculum Development

Smith, Peter J.; Smith, Swee Noi (1999). The Internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training. Review of Research. This report presents a review and analysis of research on the internationalization of vocational education and training (VET) and provides an assessment of other research that needs to be conducted in this area. Globalization is the integration of economies worldwide through trade, trade agreements, finance, information networks, and movement of people and knowledge between nations. Internationalization represents those same activities between two or more nations. Reasons for internationalization of VET include the following: VET institutions have had success in developing the inbound student market; VET has had success in offering offshore training and developing offshore campuses; each state in Australia has developed an international marketing function for VET; and clear international commercial opportunities for VET exist. Internationalization is also about ensuring that Australian VET students have the opportunity to learn and experience cross-national and cross-cultural understanding and skills to enable effective participation in an increasingly globalized world. Use of increasingly available modern interactive and noninteractive communications technologies to deliver VET services across distances and cultures is attractive. An understanding of cultural variation is important for effective business and training relationship development. Working successfully offshore requires establishment of relationships, considerable support from the home institution, and selection of appropriate personnel. Staff development requires understanding the culture to be visited and training in general cultural awareness. Internationalizing Australian VET campuses requires a whole-institution approach, enhanced student opportunity for international understanding and experience, and student support services. (Contains 120 references.) Descriptors: Communications, Cross Cultural Studies, Foreign Countries, Global Approach

Barnetson, Bob (1999). Alberta's Performance-Based Funding Mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the performance indicator-based accountability and funding mechanism implemented in the higher education system of Alberta, Canada. The paper defines the terms accountability and regulation, examines the use of performance indicators to demonstrate accountability, and explains how performance indicator-based accountability and regulatory mechanisms are used as policy instruments. The paper also discusses traditional approaches to resource allocation and recent developments in resource allocation, including performance-based funding. The paper outlines the pressures placed on governments by globalization, the right-wing political ideologies that give these pressures political voices, the resultant change in the role of government, and the development of academic capitalism. The paper notes that government policy has induced academic capitalism in Alberta's higher education system and describes Alberta's performance-based funding mechanism. The paper concludes by outlining some criticisms of the performance indicators used in Alberta's funding mechanism and discussing the implications of the performance-based funding mechanism in the province. (Contains 85 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Educational Policy, Evaluation, Evaluation Criteria

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